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周剑云:城市更新与规划体制的变革

作者: 来源:中国城市规划网 时间:2016-06-29

1.城市规划制度背景的转变

《wuquanfa》shishizhihouchengshiguihuazhiduhuanjingfashenggenbenxingdegaibian

·  zishanggeshiji90niandaiyilai,chengshikaifadeguochengjiushiyigesiyouhuadeguocheng:“tudishiyongquandeshizhizhuanbianweisuoyouquan”;

利奥官网 ·  wuquanfashiduichengshisiyouhuajieguodezhengshirending;

·  daomuqian,dabufenchengshijianchenghuanjingjibenyijingsiyouhuale。

2.城市发展方式的转变

·  chengshifazhanzhuyaofangshiyouxinqujianshezhuanxiangchengshigengxin(jingjizengzhangfanghuan)

·  guangdongde“sanjiugaizao”(jiyuejieyueyongdi)

·  shenzhendechengshigengxin(fazhankongjianxianzhi)

3.新区发展与旧城更新的本质区别

·  chengshixinqufazhanguihuadehexinshikongjianziyuanfenpei,shuyukexuefanchou;

利奥官网 ·  chengshigengxinguihuadehexinshiliyidiaozheng,shuyuzhengzhidefanchou。

4.城市更新的定义及其几种基本情况

(1)城市更新定义的基本共识:开发、整治、保护

chengshigengxinshizhizaijingjiheshehuililiangyijiguihuaduichengqudeganyuxia,suoyinqidejiyuwuzhikongjianbianhua(chaichuzhongjian、xiufudeng)、tudihejianzhuyongtudebianhua(congyizhongzhuanbianweilingyizhonggengnengchanshengxiaoyideyongtu)huoqiliyongqiangdudebianhuadeyizhongdongtaiguocheng。

(2)城市更新的几种基本情况

huanjingyinsu

·  chengshididuancunzaiyanzhongdeanquanyinhuanjihuanjingwenti;

·  lishiwenhuabaohuquneijianzhufanxin、gaizaodeng。

jingjiyinsu

· tudijiagegaoyuwuyejiage;ji:jianzhugongnengshuaitui、jianzhujiegoucanjiushideqijiageyuandiyuzhoubianwuyejiage;

· zaikaifadeliyidayuxianzhuangjiazhi。tudishiyongqiangduyuandiyuzhoubiandikuaidekaifaqiangdu。

5.城市更新的核心问题

利奥官网 (1)fensanchanquanyuzhengtikaifademaodun

· duiyujiuchengxiaodikuai,youyuzhandimianjitaixiao,wufaxiangshangfazhan,xuyaohebingdikuaiyixingchengguimojianzhuxiaoyi;

利奥官网 · zhiyoudiduandezhengtikaifacainenghuodelianghaodehuanjing,birutongguojiangdijianzhumiduqudelianghaodehuanjing,jinertigaowuyedejiazhi。

利奥官网 1983-2010nianlundunjubudiduanzongdihebingdeguocheng:zongdishuliangcong53gexiajiangdao30ge;jianzhushuliangcong44gexiajiangdao29ge。

(2)duoyuanliyizhutijiqichongtu

利奥官网 chengshigengxinsuoshejideliyizhuti:zhengfu/guanyuan、kaifashang、jumin、gongzhong、huanjing

利奥官网 liyiqudongshigengxindejibenyinsu;

利奥官网 zhengfu/guanyuan:zhengfuyingdaibiaogonggongliyi,erguanyuankenengyihuaweigerenzhengji;

kaifashang:zhuizhujingjiliyi;

利奥官网 jumin:gaishanjuzhuhuanjing,tishengwuyejiazhi;

利奥官网 gongzhong:chengshilishi、wenhuadeng;

huanjing:gongyituantidaibiao(houdai)weilaidexuqiu。

利奥官网 (3)gonggongliyijiqibianjiedequeding

利奥官网 ·  chengshigengxindiduanyuqizhoubianhuanjingcunzaiwaibuxingwenti,erqiewaibuxingdebianjienanyiqueding

birugengxindiduandezongtikaifaqiangduyuchengshigonggongsheshi、shizhengsheshi,yijidaolurongliangyouguan,yugengxindiduandejuminliyiyouguan。

·  chengshijianchenghuanjingjuyouduozhongjiazhi

利奥官网 qizhongbaokuosiyoucaichansuojuyoudegonggongshuxing,birushuyusirendelishijianzhudebaohuwenti。

·  shichangkaifasuodailaidejiuyezengzhang、jingjifuxingyushouruzengzhang、huanjinggaishandengyejuyougonggongliyidetezheng

(4)zhengshou、buchang、goumai

·  chaiqianshichengshigengxinzhongzuituchudemaodun:shangfangrenshude70-80%yuchaiqianyouguan,qiebaolishijianpinpinchuxian;

·  chaiqianwentidehexinshizhengshouquanliwentiyubuchangbiaozhunwenti;

利奥官网 ·  zhengshoushiyixiangfadingquanli:zhidetaolundeshijiyugonggongliyidezhengshouyujiyufadingguihuadezhengshouquanliwenti;

利奥官网 ·  buchangdemaodunzaiyubiaozhunwentiyujiliangwenti:anjianshechengbenhuoanzhaoshichangjiazhi?yejiushilishijiazhiyuweilaijiazhidechayi,erhexinshitudicaichanquanlidefalvguidingwenti,jitudichanquandexingzhiwenti;

利奥官网 ·  goumai:lianggepingdengzhutizhijiandejiaoyi,wanquanqujueyushuangfangdeyiyuan。

6.城市更新规划策略的转变

chengshigengxindehexingongzuoyingcongkongjianziyuandekexuefenpeizhuanbiandaotudikaifaquanlidegongpingpeizhi

(1)tudikaifaquandegainianjitezheng

kaifaquan:gaibiantudixianzhuangdequanli

利奥官网 kaifaquandetezheng:budongchan、keguanxing、kezhanyong、kefenge、kejiaoyi、yuqishouyideng

利奥官网 (2)kaifaquanyutudiliyideguanxi

·  tudiliyishikaifaquanlidebianxian,liyiliangduhegongpingganshouyuquanlishixiandechengduyouguan;

·  tudijiwuyedeliyishisuishijian、huanjingheguihuatiaojianerbianhua,erkaifaquanlibubian;

·  guihuayuqiguanzhubuduanbianhuade、yuzhuguandeqiwangyouguandeliyi,burumingquetudikaifadequanli;baozhengqiquanliyijigongpingjiaoyidehuanjing。

利奥官网 (3)tudikaifaquandechushipeizhi

sanzhongmoshi:yingguodeguoyouhua、meiguodesiyouhua、faguodehunhemoshi;

利奥官网 woguotudishiliangleisuoyouxingshi:quanminsuoyouhejitisuoyou,falvzhongmeiyoumingquekaifaquan;

woguodetudiliyongjikaifashoudaoguihuayijiyouguanxingzhengfaguideguanzhi,xiguanshangkaifaquanshuyuguojia。

利奥官网 (4)tudikaifaquanxian

yingguo:siyoutudidekaifaquanxianjin1947niandejiazhi;

meiguo:you“quhuafa”quedingsiyoutudidekaifaquanli;

利奥官网 faguo:falvguidingtudikaifade“fadingmidushangxian”zhidu,shangxianyixiaguisiren,shangxianyixiaguizhengfu;

zhongguo:1993nianzhongshanzhengfu5haowenjian,tudichurangdebiaozhunrongjilvzhidu。

tudikaifaquanlichushipeizhidetaolun

利奥官网 1)yizhaowoguofalv,anzhaoguihuajixukekaifadetudishoudaofalvbaohu,bingqieyejinxianyuguihuatiaojiansuofuyudequanxian,renhechaochuguihuayaoqiudebufenshuyuweifajianshe;zheijiuyiweizhesiyoutudijinyouanzhaoguihuatiaojiankaifadexianzhuangtudishiyongdequanli;

2)ruguochengshigengxinguihuafuyuxianzhuangtudigenggaode、jichaochuxianzhuangtudishiyongzhuangtaidekaifaquanli,neimezheizhongchaochudexianzhuangtudishiyongdekaifaquanlishuyushei?shuyugeren、haishishuyuzhengfu?

利奥官网 3)ruguoxinzengkaifaquanlishuyusiren,neimesirenjiuxiangyoutudizaikaifasuodailaidezengzhishouyi;ruhebilidefenxiangshuyusirenjiaoyidefanchou;zheizhongzhiducunzaigengxindedongli;

4)ruguoxinzengquanlishuyuguojia,yejiuyiweizhesirentudizhixiangyouxianzhuangtudidejiazhi,yejiuzhianzhaoxianzhuangtudijiazhijinxingbuchang;meiyoukaifadedongli,qiecunzaigongpingwenti;

利奥官网 5)disantiaofangshi:guidingyigekaifaquanlideshangxian,biruxianzhuangshiyongguimodebilixishu,biru1.2-1.5 ;shangxianyixiaguigeren,shangxianyishangguizhengfu。

(5)tudikaifaquanlichushipeizhishichengshigengxindejiaodian

suoyoudechaiqian、buchangwentidehexinshitudichushikaifaquanlidebuqingxi,jinerzaochengbuchangbiaozhunbumingque,yejiushiyezhushifoujuyoufenxiangtudikaifazengzhidequanliwenti;

tudikaifaquanlipeizhizhidushichengshigengxindedongliyinsu;zhiyouhelidequanyifenpeizhiducainengzhenzhengtuidongchengshigengxin。

(6)tudikaifaquanliyukaifahuodongdeguanxi,kaifaquandepeizhiduixiangwenti:yezhuhuotudi

利奥官网 ·  zhiyoujutidekaifahuodongcainengshixiantudiquanli,binghuodetudishouyi;

·  kaifahuodongdezhutixuyaoziben、jishu、xinxiherencai;

·  kaifaquanyukaifahuodongshifenlieryoulianxizaiyiqi;

·  kaifahuodongyukaifaxiangmudetezhengyouguanxi;

·  woguoguanlizhidushihunxiaokaifaquanyukaifahuodongdeguanxi,bingrenweigeliekaifaquanyukaifahuodongdeguanxi;shanghaixintiandigaizaojiushixianzhudeyili。

(7)rongjilvzhuanyizhidushiliyixiediaoyukongjianxiediaodeyouxiaozhidusheji

利奥官网 rongjilvshikaifaquandelianghuaxingshizhiyi,rongjilvzhuanyishizaizishenchanquandikuaizhiwaihudeliyideyouxiaotujing;

利奥官网 jianlirongjilvjiaoyishichangshizhengfudiaokongchengshigengxindezhuyaogongju。lianggekongjianchiduderongjilvshichang,gengxinfanweineiderongjilvshichang,gengxindiquyuxinkaifadiquderongjilvshichang。

(8)chengshigengxindezhuti

利奥官网 zhengfudechengshigengxinbumen——xianggangshiquzhongjianju;

利奥官网 feizhengfudegonggongjigou——yingguochengshikaifagongsi、shiquzhongjiangongsi…;

shangyexingkaifajigou——geleifangdichangongsi;

利奥官网 shequgengxinjigouhuogetizizhugengxin。

jianyicainayingguodezhidujingyan:jianlifeizhengfude、feiyinglidegonggongjigou,jishiquzhongjiankaifagongsi。gongsidechengliyinghuodegengxindiqujuminde70%yishangrendetongyi,juyoufadingshouquandeguihuabianzhiyushenpi、zhengshou、kaifadengquanbuquanlidezonghexinggonggongjigou。

(9)chengshigengxinzhongzhengfudejiaose

zhengcegongjiyuzhidugongji,tigongzhengcexingguihuaerfeijutidekaifaguihua,jianlirongjilvshichang、peizhichushikaifaquan、jianlichengshigengxinjijindeng;

zhengfuyouguihuadezhiding、shishizhezhuanhuaweiguihuadeshenpihekaifadejianguanren,youyundongyuanzhuanhuaweicaipanyuan。

(10)chengshigengxindezijinjiqichoucuoqudao

利奥官网 chengshigengxinsanzhongzijinlaiyuan:zhengfudegonggongtouru,gengxindiqujumindetouru,shichangdetouru;

yijugengxinxiangmutezhengquedinggengxingaizaodetouruzhuti,biruchengshilishibaohudiduanyaobimianshichangzijindejieru,erzhuyaodiaodongjumindetouruhezhengfudegonggongtouru;erchengshigengxinshichangjiazhijiaodadediqugulishichangdetouru;

利奥官网 jianyizhengfuyouxiangmutouruzhuanxiangjianlichengshigengxinjijin,youbofuzhidiaozhengweishenqingzhi;

利奥官网 jianyicaiyongfeizhengfugonggongjigoudechengshigengxingongsilaizhenghegeleizijin。

7.城市更新规划制度变革的建议

(1)chengshigengxinguihuazhiduyuzhengcedegongji

利奥官网 jiaqiangchengshigengxinzhuanmenfalvzhidujianshe,jiaqiangchengshigengxinzhengcedegongji,birurongjilvzhuanyideng;

利奥官网 jianlichengshigengxinzhuanxiangjijin。

利奥官网 (2)jianlichengshigengxindezhuanmenjigou

muqiandemoshishizhengfuzonghejigou(bumen)+kaifagongsi。

jianyicaiyongyingguodefeizhengfugonggongjigoudegongsizuoweichengshigengxindezhuanmenjigouxingshi,leisixiangmugongsidexingshi,youleisigufengongsiyouzhengfudaibiao、kaifaqiye、hejumindaibiaogongtongguanli,zaihuode70%yishangjumintongyihoujiukeyichengli,qizhongkeyijiejianchengzhongcungaizaodesanfangzuzhijingyan。

zaifadingguihuadekuangjiaxia,gongsijuyouguihuabianzhi、zhengshou、choujizijin、kaifadengzonghequanli,jianyishiquzhongjiangongsifadexingshiyuyiqueren。

(3)jianliliangcengcidechengshigengxinguihuatixi

利奥官网 1)shiqugengxinzhuanxiangguihua:shuyuzhengcexingguihua,zhuyaoneirongyingbaokuo:quedingchengshigengxindemubiao、fanwei、peizhichushikaifaquan、quedinggengxinkaifadebiaozhunrongjilv、quedingrongjilvzhuanchudihezhuanrudi、chengshigengxindezhuti、gengxinjijintouruyuqitatourudebilideng;

2)chengshigengxindiduandekaifaguihua:youkaifazhutifuzebianzhi。jutineirongyijuxiangmutezhengerding,yingyangeanzhaofadingchengxubianzhiheshenpi;kaifaguihuadeguanjianshigengxindanyuandechidu。

(4)chengshigengxindanyuandejizhongchidu

·  yijianzhuchangzhidefanxingaizao:lishibaohudiduan;

·  yizongdi(plot)weidanyuangengxin,shiyongdaxingdanyichanquandegaizao,birudanwei、gongchangdeng;

·  yijiekuai(block),xuyaojiangxiaozongdizhengheweijiekuaikaifa,juyoushidizhonghuadetezheng。

利奥官网 yichengshigongnengweidanyuangengxin;

yishequweidanyuandegengxin;

利奥官网 yijingjikaifaxiaoyiweidanyuandegengxin。

(5)chengshigengxindefadingchengxu

·  tian、dongyi、chenglikaifajigou;

·  quequan、dengji,wanshanfalvshouxu;

·  guihuadebianzhiyushenpi;

·  chaiqian、buchang、anzhi;

·  jianshe、kaifa;

·  suoyouquandengji、jieguan、juesuan。

(6)yikaifaquanweihexindechengshigengxindiduankongzhixingxiangxiguihuadegaijinjianyi

利奥官网 mingxichanquanbianjie

mingxichanquanneirong

利奥官网 cesuanyulianghuakaifabiaozhun

mingquekaifaquandeguishu

diaopeikaifaquan:zhengshou、zhuanyiyubaoliu

zhibiaotixiyushuoming

8.结论与建议

(1)yanjiujielun

·  chengshijianchenghuanjingdabufenyijingsiyouhuale;

利奥官网 ·  “wuquanfa”genbenxingdegaibianlechengshiguihuadezhiduhuanjing;

利奥官网 ·  chengshigengxindehexinwentishiduoyuanliyizhutijiqichongtu,fensanchanquanyuzhengtikaifademaodun;

·  tudikaifaquanshiliyixiediaohekongjianxiediaodezhuyaogongju;

·  chengshigengxinguihuayingcongkongjianziyuanfenpeidekexueweiduzhuanxiangkaifaquanpeizhidezhengceweidu。

(2)zhengcejianyi

利奥官网 ·  liqingkaifaquan、kaifahuodong、kaifazhutideguanxi;

利奥官网 ·  jiaqiangchengshigengxindezhidugongjihezhengcegongji;

·  jianlifeizhengfudefadinggonggongjigoushishichengshigengxin;

利奥官网 ·  jianlichengshigengxinjijin,gaijinzhengfudegonggongtouru;

利奥官网 ·  jianli“shiqugengxinzhuanxiangguihua”he“chengshigengxindiduankaifaguihua”liangcengciguihuatixi;

·  jianlifadingchengshigengxinchengxu。

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